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|An Evaluation of the Hazards of Toys and other Products made from Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)|
In Print; personal communications: reproduced in full or in part on this website:
Technical references | Lead | Phthalates | Other
Important Update: Comparing the safety of all materials used for food and water
July, 2002: Recent questions from our email inbox
Links to documents:
Easy-to-print version of this report (26 sec @ 28k)
PVC Technical references
N. Grassie, G. Scott Polymer Degradation & Stabilization.
Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 1985
W. Tötsch, H.Gaensslen Polyvinylchloride: Environmental Aspects of a Common Plastic. Elsevier, London 1990
Matthews, George PVC: Production, Properties, and Uses. The Institute of Materials 1996 ISBN 0 901716 59 6 University Press, Cambridge
M. Sittig, Ed. Vinyl Chloride and PVC Manufacture: Process and Environmental Aspects. Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ 1978
Dr. Russell Composto, School of Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pennsylvania: Private communication.
Dr. Deborah A. Corey Slechta, Department of Environmental Medicine, Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY: Private Communication.
Findings of Lead in PVC toys:
LIST OF INFANT TOYS (INCLUDING TEETHERS) MADE FROM PVC, AND TOYS MADE FROM OTHER PLASTICS (Compiled by Greenpeace in 1997. This list may be out-of-date. Inclusion in this list does not indicate whether or not any specific toy contains lead or cadmium)
B. Roth and others, "Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-pththalate as plasticizer in PVC respiratory tubing systems: indications of hazardous effects on pulmonary function in mechanically ventilated, preterm infants," EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Vol. 147 (1988), pgs. 41-46.
Jacobson M.S., Kevy S.V., Grand R.J. (1977) Effects of Plasticizer leached from polyvinyl chloride on the subhuman primate: a consequence of chronic transfusion therapy. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 89: 1066-1079 [Applicability of rhesus monkey data to humans is established; after 1 year chronic infusion with PVC blood bags, clear signs of change in liver function and cell damage in rhesus monkey are seen]
Update, Jan. '99:
VARIOUS REACTIONS TO THE GREENPEACE STUDIES ON PVC TOYS: NIKE'S OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT, MORE ACTION IN EUROPE. Comment by scientists and health professionals; response from the toy industry and the Consumer Product Safety Commisssion; rebuttals by the Environmental Quality Institute (Testing lab) and Greenpeace; letter to V.P. Al Gore, signed by over 20 health professionals; Austria bans PVC toys; Nike eliminates PVC from products and plant construction.