An Evaluation of the Hazards of Toys and other Products made from Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
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July, 2002: We answer More Questions on PVC from our E-mail Inbox
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October, 2005 
Important Update: Comparing the safety of all materials used for food and water

April 18, 2007:

Q:  Thank you for the information you provide at
 I have recently purchased a Klean Kanteen for my toddler, but I am concerned about storing juice in it, especially for trips.  You mentioned the possibility of nickel leaching from stainless steel during the cooking process.  Have you found any research on the safety of storing juice in stainless steel for a length of time?  I have been unsuccessful at finding any research on this topic online.  Any information you can send me would be appreciated.

A:     A brief online search suggests that storage of cold acidic liquids should not present a problem. A very realistic and, I think, valid-sounding study by the U.K. Laboratory of the Government Chemist concluded that
"... nickel pickup by meal-sized portions of real foods cooked in stainless steel utensils at normal domestic cooking temperatures and times was generally below the analytical detectable limits for nickel of 0.01 mg/kg, or l,ug in a 100 g serving of food. Undetectable nickel pickup is considered insignificant with respect to human health effects and reinforces the ongomg use of stainless steel by consumers as the material of choice for cookware."
     Notably, previously unused utensils leached the most nickel (to be expected), which was negligible to begin with, and rapidly declined from that point. These resultls were for hot acidic foods simmered for 1 to 2 hours. Storage of cold liquids presents even less of a problem.
...more information. Read actual study data 

April 17, 2007:

Q: Hi, I am Action Figure/Toy soldier collector and customizer. I began investigating best storage method for storing figures, but have quickly redirected my efforts to investigate hazards of PVC. I am particulary concerned for Action Figure customizers who basically make a new version figure from parts of others, because heat is sometimes used in the process. This can be from power tools (ie dremel tool) or heat guns to harden polymer clays (ie. sculpey) used to add sculping details to figures. I am worried enough to have posted a warning on an Internet Forum that has customizers to cease all heating of plastics. I am now trying to get the facts as best I may & will attempt to put the message out on all Forums that have customizers. I am finding your information helpful and easier to understand then some that are very complicated. Do you have any advice,info or other sites/references that might be useful for the heating/burning hazards particularly ?

A:   The danger from heating plastics is actually if they are heated enough to 
decompose or burn. In the case of PVC, you can see darkening or oxidizing. 
At lower temperatures, a fair test is if you can smell it, you need better 
ventilation. An open window and a fan blowing across the work so you are 
not inhaling rising fumes, is generally adequate. The fumes released from 
decomposing PVC is HCl, and you will certainly notice the acrid smell.
     Polyolefins are, I think, relatively benign unless they are burned. They 
are used extensively for heat sealing. Based on simple hydrocarbons with 
relatively few additives, you are not producing anything really dangerous 
when you heat them moderately.
     If a substance is designed to be hardened by heat, it is quite possible that 
heat just causes a chemical change without releasing any dangerous fumes. 
Again, the nose knows. Unless you burn the plastic, it is unlikely you will 
release anything actually lethal. One of the worst examples is Polyurethane, 
which releases cyanide gas when burned. This generally only occurs at very 
high temperatures (an actual fire). Dioxins are generated only at higher 
temperatures (fires) under 2,000 F, and preferentially in presence of a 
catalyst (which is why burning old electric wire is so dangerous - PVC plus 
copper yields dioxins, HCl, and other nasty stuff - and makes house fires so 
     In machining plastics, you need to use specially designed blades and slower 
cutting speeds to avoid excessive heat; or cut intermittently, allowing 
frequent cooling intervals, or use water to maintain lower temperature. 
Wood-drilling RPM is probably much too fast for plastics. The dust or chips 
should be isolated from clean waste such as wood, and disposed of separately 
if you are using the wood waste for heat or compost. Always wear a dust mask 
when machining anything, unless you have a proper dust collection system.

May 20, 2007:

Q: "Love your website! Are Silicon coated feeding spoons (gerber) harmful? Should I switch to pvc-free the first years disposable spoons? Wont these break down sooner b/c disposable? Thanks so much!"

A: According to our article 
it depends on the silicon (you mean "silicone"?) used, and what is mixed with it. Pure medical grade silicone is safe. Why does a spoon have to be coated with anything? 
PVC is not suitable for anything during the first 12 months, and generally not good for in-the-mouth use, or use with hot foods. What is "pvc-free the first years disposable spoons"? Don't assume we know every baby product out there. But why buy anything? What is wrong with regular stainless tableware? 
As we try to show, nothing is perfectly safe, nor should we expect it to be. There is evidence that modern parents go too far in establishing a sterile environment for infants, which may be having a very serious impact. This certainly happened in Japan, where young children's immune systems were compromised by lack of "exercize", compounded by their almost universal bottle feeding. There are theories that this problem may be contributing to a puzzling rise in food allergies in the US, especially to nuts.

PS: how come you don't want to be on our email list? If we do come up with more material relevant to your question, that is how it will be provided - in our email newsletter. We also do have to sell stuff to maintain the website.

July 26, 2002
  Hi, I was wondering if you could soothe my concern about the use of PVC in plastic liners for platex bottles. I have been informed that colored plastics and liners for bottles are safe, but wanted to contact you because of the extensive information on this site.   
thank you very much, Marina.
A: I'm sorry to say I can't offer much comfort in regard to the use of PVC (vinyl) liners for infant formula bottles.  The Phthalate compounds (see pages on this website, navigation bar at left) used to make PVC flexible gradually leach out of the plastic under mechanical stress (chewing, ordinary use) at room temperature.  At 80 degrees F or higher they are much more soluble, and may also become available for inhalation as a gas to some extent. In addition, phtalates are highly fat-soluble, so the fat content in milk or formula may cause even greater leaching of the plasticizer into the liquid being ingested by the infant. Although there is no clear, direct link betwen phthalate ingestion and disease, phthalates accumulate in fat, liver, heart, and lung tissue, may cause liver damage over a long period of time, and are believed to affect the immune system. Further, the organic tin stabilizers generally used in clear PVC may be harmful to the male reproductive system  in very young mammals.  For that reason, Vinyl products, especially those designed to go in the mouth or contain food, are not a good idea for children younger than 12 months old. However, cold, non-acidic drinks, principally water, should not be much affected if served to the infant in bottles with PVC liners. Other than that, breast feeding is always the best choice for infants when possible. 

Q:  I purchase drinking water in one gallon clear plastic bottles.  One store offers drinking water in bottles with the number 1 (PETE) on the bottom. A second store offers drinking water in bottles with the number 3 on the bottom. Which bottle is more inert, and therefore, the better bottle, number 1 or number 3?
Thank you for your reply.   Bob
A:  The recycle code #1 indicates PETE, or Polyethylene Terephthalate. The name seems to contain the word "Phtalate", and indeed the plasticizer in this plastic is closely related to the phthalate compounds used to keep PVC flexible. It does not present much of a problem when used with plain cold water, since it is not very soluble in water. It does gradually leach out, which is why the bottle gradually becomes less flexible.  Recycle code #3 is PVC (vinyl), which contains not only phthalates but also a stabilizer, usually organic tin, which also gradually leaches out. Again, it should not be much of a problem using plain cold water in these bottles.  Try filling either bottle with very hot water. Smell something?  That's the plasticizer gassing off at higher temperatures.  Anything that smells like that can't be good for you, is how I look at it. PVC is used for athletic water-packs like the Camelback, and is probably OK if used with cold water.  If the water gets hot, as it might with direct sun exposure, it may not be such a good idea. 

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June 11, 2002:
We received a communication from Dominique J.B. Vanpée, a representative of a very interesting website called , based in Antwerp, Belgium. It is affiliated with and sponsored by several major Belgian academic institutions and a few large corporations involved with such activities as biotechnology, water quality, and waste management. The site presents one of the most precisely balanced points of view I have seen, in maintaining at once a genuinely pro-environment and technology-friendly attitude. Their long list of articles, for example, on global warming, present arguments that range from supportive to moderate to skeptical regarding the impact of man-made greenhouse gases on environmental change. Since we offer such a comprehensive analysis of PVC, our attention was called to an interview with Jacques de Gerlache, toxicologist and communications director for health, safety and environmental issues with Solvay, the Brussels-based chemical and pharmaceutical multinational group that is the world's third largest PVC manufacturer. 

Not surprisingly, Dr. de Gerlache offers the view that the use of PVC does not present a problem in any of its applications.

A few of Dr. deGerlache's assertions invite an immediate response.
1. Use of fossil fuels
deGerlache: PVC production also requires relatively little fossil fuel. In a PVC molecule there is about 40 percent chlorine and 60 percent, or a little less, hydrocarbon, so it depends less on petrol than other plastics. The chlorine it contains is mainly made from a simple material: sea salt, which is abundantly available all over the globe.
Turnertoys: This statement is factual, but overlooks the rather large energy cost in separating the chlorine from the salt. The electricity required can, of course, be generated by means other than the burning of fossil fuels, such as nuclear or hydro.

2. Incineration of chlorine-rich materials and the production of dioxins
deGerlache: For quite some time, one believed that burning PVC in an incinerator would release dioxins. About twenty investigations have been done in several countries: they all have the same bottom line: the presence of PVC in the incinerator has no impact on dioxin emissions from this incinerator. 
The material I have read, admittedly none more recent than the late 1990's, was very equivocal on this point.  Some of the data produced by an exhaustive U.S. Environmental Protection Agency review of data from many studies indicated that in fact dioxins may be produced in incinerators in quantities of concern. The issue of combustion is complicated by the fact that many, if not most incinerators are maintained and operated in less-than-ideal fashion, including insufficiently high temperature or oxygen. But the real problem with PVC in regard to combustion is that a good percentage of burning occurs in accidental residential or industrial fires. The intensive use of PVC for structural elements and especially electrical parts and insulation, in combination with the copper wire that serves as an ideal catalyst for dioxin formation, resulted in several reports of high concentrations of dioxin downwind from the site of the accidental fire.
deGerlache: There will be chlorine in the incinerator, due to kitchen salt and similar substances, and a little more or less chlorine from PVC will not significantly add to the dioxin emissions, if any.
Turnertoys: I am sorry to have to say that such a statement seems disingenuous. How much kitchen salt do you throw away each week? Compared to the significant quantity of PVC that ends up in the waste stream, the amount of simple inorganic chlorides such as table salt would have to be unmeasurably small. A lot of PVC  is thrown away in conjunction with construction and renovation of houses and larger building.  When a house gets new siding, the old viny siding is thrown out, and ends up either in the landfill or the incinerator. A large source of waste PVC is electric wiring, and here again, it is in intimate contact with copper, an excellent catalyst for forming dioxins. This is not to say a state-of-the-art incinerator, perfectly run and maintained, cannot prevent the emission of dioxins to the atmosphere, but it seems that in practise most will fail to do this.  Dr. deGerlache points out that a large amount of PVC is used in automobiles, and thus waste from junk cars is another substantial source of discarded or burned PVC. 

A reminder:
NEVER, EVER BURN HOUSEHOLD OR CONSTRUCTION WASTE CONTAINING ANY SORT OF PLASTIC.   PVC, Polyurethane, and other plastics give off highly toxic and potentially deadly gases when burned.   

3. The use of lead as a stabilizer (Read our detailed analysis of this topic).
deGerlache: The composition of lead for example is such that it helps stabilise the PVC, to make it heat resistant. And it allows the material to keep its specific properties for years on end. A PVC window frame can be used for fifty or even a hundred years. It need not be painted and does not require any additional work. The problem, by the way, is not the mere presence of the metal in the PVC, as it does not migrate [emphasis added]. The problem is the possible dissemination into the environment if the PVC waste is not properly managed.
As it became aware of the problems with heavy metals, the industry has looked for alternative solutions. Some are under way, but of course, solutions could have an impact on technical performance or overall cost. Customers will always demand products which are cost competitive. This means that substitution will take time. For cadmium, alternatives are now in use everywhere. Cadmium is no longer used as an additive in the PVC industry. For lead there is a program to progressively eliminate it in PVC production. The industry has decided to stop using lead by the year 2015 on a voluntary basis.
Turnertoys: I must say I was surprised to see that lead-stabilized PVC is still in widespread use for construction. I had been under the impression that it had already been largely replaced by tin compounds, which is no great reassurance, but better than using lead. The use of lead is dangerous and absolutely unacceptable! Whether it is extensively used for architecture in the U.S. as it seems to be in Europe I do not know.  Certainly, its use in fresh-water pipe seems especially worrisome. According to my investigations, the statement that lead does not migrate to the surface of PVC is simply factually incorrect. In an interview with Dr. Russell Composto, School of Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), I learned that

"Stabilizers are not chemically bound to the PVC polymer chains.   Only the amount of stabilizers which reacts with damaged parts of the polymer become chemically bound.  Whether mixed in during formulation, or into the melt during manufacturing, stabilizer molecules are held in place when the melt freezes, like objects in an ice cube.  Heat Stabilizers  are typically added at the rate of about .5 percent (.005) of the polymer.  Metal salts (like lead carbonate, etc) don't "like" to be mixed into an organic polymer, and so tend to clump and migrate when the polymer is heated, or in surface areas subject to weathering and stress.  For this reason, we expect the stabilizer to accumulate on the surface in normal use, especially if the product is exposed to heat, stress,  or light, particularly direct sunlight.  Smith (1996) cites the leaching of lead from new PVC pipe."

Dr. deGerlache makes some points worth noting. Flexible PVC packaging (which is never stabilized with lead) is clearly superior for certain kinds of food packaging, such as for meats and cheeses, and for containers for whole blood and other medical supplies. There is considerable evidence that consumers are exposed regularly to phthlalate plasticizers from food packaging, and that consumers and medical patients do ingest phthalates from repeated exposures, and that the substance accumulates in body tissue such as lung, heart, liver, and fat.  Whether it is doing any harm is still an open question.  The effects are certain to be subtle and hard to detect, unlike the obvious and acute effects of lead toxicity. There is somewhat more reason to be concerned about the ingestion of phthalates by infants under 12 months of age, based on evidence from research with rats and mice. It is merely prudent to avoid teethers made with rubber or any soft plastic, not just vinyl,  all of which must contain some sort of plasticizer which by its nature will be ingested by the infant. 

Dr. deGerlache's discussion of the recycling possibilities for PVC is excellent and informative. However, the problem is that at least in the U.S., very little PVC actually gets recycled. Apparently, Europe is leading the way in this technology. If it can be done without adding dangerous pollutants to the environment, then certainly the arguments against the use of PVC will have been answered to some extent.  However, as always, there is the difference between state-of-the-art demonstration facilities and the eventual widespread use by less qualified and less concerned enterprises. 

Written by Ed Loewenton, June 11, 2002

(To read the complete interview, go to 
If this is not a working link, copy it (<ctrl>+C) and paste it (<ctrl>+V) into your browser address bar above.)

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Question [received 05/27/2002]: I work for a vinyl fence company. We use saws and routers to cut the material. The saws do become hot and smoke is sometimes emitted from the vinyl. There is also a large amount of dust in the work area. Is there a significant risk of exposure to vinyl chloride in this type environment?
First of all, there should be little if any dust available to inhale in any
industrial facility.  OSHA formulated regulations about this in the '80s and
'90s.  I know that in the wood industry, they are very strict.  Whether or
not dusts are considered toxic, all are considered hazardous from the
standpoint of chronic exposure in the workplace. If you are also
experiencing real smoke as opposed to just a dense cloud of fine dust, I
would imagine that that smoke must be extremely acrid and irritating, since
it would contain a great deal of hydrogen chloride , which forms
Hydrochloric Acid when it comes in contact with moisture in the lungs.  That
in itself would make it an acute hazard, although it's hard to imagine that
management would allow it to continue since it must also be corroding the
machinery and tooling very fast. It is not clear that you would be dealing
with other toxins in this case, since the temperatures are probably not high
enough to be forming dioxins. However, there is a possibility that the PVC
stock that you are using is stabilized with lead. In Europe, lead-stabilized
PVC is still commonly used for architectural products. In this case, you
would also be dealing with exposure to lead dust, and that would be a real
problem.  Possibly you can obtain a sample and have it tested. You might want
to contact OSHA to find out what regulations apply in your case.

Question [received 04/03/2002]:
I have a customer who produces products using Vinyl Chloride and we are trying to track down a video or other material that he can present to his new employees on the hazards of working around the product. Do you know of any industrial safety orientation programs that are current and up to date? 
Response: We don't know of any training video specifically for this substance, which I assume is Vinyl Chloride Monomer.  If that is what it is, it is an extremely hazardous material. You might contact OSHA (US Occupational Safety and Health Agency) or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Washington, DC, to see what they suggest. It is also possible that the chemical manufacturer might have some resources. 

Comment [received 2/20/02]: Your web page concerning PVC is excellent. I know that you are not releasing this information to sell more wooden toys. I believe that you are doing a great public service informing the public of the problems with PVC. My own personal opinion is that PVC should be banned. You will never get the plastics industry to agree that this plastic is dangerous but they should agree that there are alternatives and PVC should be banned. Try getting Wal Mart to ban PVC and that would be the end of PVC. I found your web site by accident as I was doing some research on PVC. I have just been granted a patent to manufacture tinsel garland from polypropylene. This product is presently PVC. I only point this out to let all know that if they want to find alternatives they are available. Thank you so much for your report. By the way, I was at the NY Toy Fair and I attended their annual safety seminar. I learned that CPSC is going to release a study of mouthing habits of children and PVC. As you know the TIA is a supporter of phthalates in toys. Why, because of price as you know? All my grandchildren will definitely use Turner Toys.
Response: The Netherlands government conducted such a study of infant mouthing habits and Phthalate release four years ago. The CPSC study seems a bit late in coming out.  

Q: I am concerned about toxics in childrens toys. I have been evaluating toys and items in my household. I am confused about the different recycle numbers and abbreviations such as HDPP or LDPP found on plastic items in my home. Which ones are a concern? Which ones are toxic? How many different types of plastic are there and which ones are safe?  I would greatly appreciate your help! D kessler 
A: Recycle numbers: 3 = PVC; 7 = polycarbonate; 1 = PETE; others are mostly olefins (mostly safe at low temperatures with plain water - see question below). 
All soft or flexible plastic contains plasticizers, which may leach out, and be ingested by anyone who sucks or chew on it.  Rigid plastics such as polycarbonate, used in better quality sports water bottles (e.g., Nalgene) contain little or no plasticizers.  See our material on plasticizers for more information.
HDPP an LDPP stands for high (low) density polypropylene.  These, along with HDPE (polyethylene)& PETE (polyethylene terephthalate - similar to phthalate), are OLEFINS and contain plasticizers which are not a problem when exposed to cold water (not soluble) but leach out in hot water.  The basic polymer is not at all toxic. Try putting very hot water in a bottle made of this stuff (very common) and smell it. I do not know how much comes out in saliva, as in a teether. Some teethers are made of olefins, many as a substitute for PVC after it became the subject of reports such as ours.
Just how toxic phthalates are is a matter of debate.  It is probably a hazard to infants, especially males. Read our complete material for a real understanding of this.

How bad are pvc mini-blinds in a baby's room, or any room in a home? How is the lead passed to the baby? Janine 
A: Our page on lead stabilizers contains detailed information about this. 
In brief, lead migrates to the surface of the material, and is present as dust on the blinds or falls to the windowsill.  Infants or toddlers who have access to the blinds sometimes chew on the slats; also, they handle the blinds and get the dust from their hands into their mouths.  Take the time to read our material to understand the hazards of lead.
I do not know whether pvc blinds are still stabilized (see article for explanation) with lead or not. You might check with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, or ask the manufacturer.  There are test kits for lead available in some hardware stores.
Electric,especially computer cables are sources of lead as stabilizers in pvc. Do not let children chew on these cords. Vinyl siding and water pipe also at one time were stabilized with lead; I do not know if that is still true.

Q: Have you found polyethylene terephthalate to be harmful? It is in all drinking bottles.
A: Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) is indeed one of the most common plastics, used in most soft drink & spring water bottles.  The polymer is polyethylene, which by itself is safe because it is essentially inert, with an added plasticizer or stabilizer which is chemically very similar to the "phthalates" which have caused so much concern when used in PVC. "Terephthalate" is a synonym for a molecule almost identical to phthalic acid. These compounds are not very soluble in cold water, which is why they are safe enough for cold drinks.  I am not sure if this holds for acidic drinks such as colas. The phthalates become volatile at slightly higher temperatures.  You can test this by putting very hot water into a new PETE bottle and smelling it. Not alll water bottles  are made of PETE.  Nalgene makes a line of sports/camping water bottles of polycarbonate, which is apparently suitable for hot, although not boiling, liquids.  But the stuff you get in the food store, is, indeed, PETE. It's just what we say on the website- in practise, all plastics require plasticizers or stabilizers or both.  When that is a real concern, stick to glass, ceramic, or metal.

Q: What about the company Baby King? I have a teething ring from them that says it's phthalates free but what about their pacifiers?
A: All plastics have some sort of plasticizer, which is why we make  our rattle  out of wood. This may be OK for a drinking bottle for cold water only, but for acid juices or hot liquids, only a few plastics (Nalgene's polycarbonate, e.g.) are acceptable.  There is enough doubt about the safety of plasticizers (e.g., phthalates) for children under 12 months that it simply makes sense to use something other than plastic for teethers and pacifiers, which are in a child's mouth for so many hours.
I have never heard of "Baby King". They must be pretty obscure if they are not on our list.  Does the label give any info regarding who owns the trade name? If the label says "phthalates free", it probably is.  Have you tried calling the company?  These companies are often less than helpful with such information, but it is worth a try. 

Q: What is the difference between PVC and Soft PVC? 
All PVC's are more or less flexible, and much softer than, say, nylon. delrin, lexan or urethane. The degree of flexibility and softness depends on the amount of PLASTICIZER the PVC contains. Polyvinyl Chloride (vinyl, or PVC) is an inherently rigid and brittle polymer (big molecule consisting of a string of smaller ones). The Phthalates, such as DEHP & DINP, are use to make the PVC soft and flexible. The more the Phthalate, the softer the PVC.

Q: Why is it so harmful for children for these chemicals to be in their toys. 
Phthalates are not bound to the PVC molecule. They are held in the plastic like water in a sponge. They leach out easily. They build up in liver tissue, where they causes changes which have been associated with liver tumors. They also appear in heart, lung, and fat tissues. They cause damage to testicular tissues of newborn mice, and are suspected of doing the same to human newborns. They are also implicated in immune system damage. Children teething on PVC toys ingest a fair amount of the substance, which accumulates in the body. 

Despite widespread exposure to phthalates in modern society, we do not in fact see epidemics of liver cancer, although declining male fertility may be due in part to its presence in just about everything. It is hard to say what the real consequences have been, but when substitutes can be found, it makes sense to use them. PVC is a preferred material for food packaging, especially cheeses and meats.  Since Phthalates are very fat-soluble, a lot of it gets into the surface of the cheese or meat. Metal Foil/polyethylene sandwiches have been used in place of PVC food packaging. 

It is good to remember that this whole recent issue of PVC toys started in the mid-90's with a concern over Lead & Cadmium in PVC, not phthalates. Lead may be used as a stabilizer or pigment in opaque, brightly colored toys. It accumulates as a dust on the surface, and is acutely poisonous. There is no safe level of lead ingestion for young children, despite what the EPA says. Electric wire, including computer cable,  is frequently insulated with lead-stabilized vinyl, since it is a very good insulator.

Q: What exactly is Phthalate and Dioxin? 
Phthalates are esters (organic salts) of Phthalic acid. They are found throughout the consumer economy, in cosmetics, paints, rubbing alcohol, vinyl food packaging, medical devices, etc. Dioxin is very different, one of the most toxic substances on earth, very carcinogenic. It is not plentiful in daily life. It is formed by the combination of organic materials with chlorine, such as in bleaching of paper. It requires a temperature of at least a few hundred degrees, or presence of a catalyst. It may be generated by incineration of waste containing chlorine. PVC, especially construction waste in trash, is a common source. Copper is catalytic, so burning electric wire is a prime source. This shows why backyard burning is such a dangerous and foolish thing to do. Backyard burning of PVC also gives off Hydrogen Chlorine, which forms Hydrochloric Acid in the lungs.  This can result in serious lung damage and Pneumonia.  We do not expect to find dioxin in PVC products at room temperature, although in fact we do occasionally find traces of it in products manufactured with less than ideal quality control.  We are equally likely to find Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM), the material from which PVC is made, in poor quality vinyl.  VCM is also a potent neurotoxin and carcinogen. 

Q: Is the type of PVC that was in the old barbies the same that is in the old Ty Beenie Babies? 
I have no idea. Manufacturers are reluctant to disclose information about products.

Regarding the use of PVC in toys: our list of infant toys containing PVC is probably out of date.  More and more toy manufacturers have been switching to the use of other materials.  We had been getting these updates from Greenpeace, but they have not actively pursued these investigations for most of this past year. Consequently, we will try, if time permits, to contact some of the manufacturers on our list (see page in this section) and have them bring us up to date.  This may not be easy, since many of those using vinyl having been reluctant to provide this information.

Q: Is there anything else I should know?
A: You should spend a few hours reading our material on PVC. You can download & print the print friendly page for offline reading. A careful study of our material would have answered all your questions.

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